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The Food Industry Center

Fruit Documentation

Fresh Apples

Approximately 80% of apples that are picked fresh are available for sale at retail, 15% go to manufacturing, and 5% of the apples that leave the orchard eventually enter the waste stream or become animal feed. This waste is in addition to the waste from further processing.

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Apple Juice

2000 pounds of fresh fruit yield 1700 pounds of juice, resulting in a conversion factor of 0.85.

The 300 pounds of waste generated in this process is used for cattle and hog feed. These percentages are constant if the apple comes via a "packer" or directly from a grower/orchard. This waste includes stems, seeds, skin, and mashed pulp.

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Canned Apples

NA

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Dried Apples

2,000 pounds of fresh fruit yield 250 pounds of dried apples, resulting in a conversion factor of 0.125.

The byproducts are 1,250 pounds of water and 500 pounds of peel and core that go into juice production. These percentages are constant if the apple comes via a "packer" or directly from a grower/ orchard.

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Frozen Apples

2,000 pounds of fresh fruit yield 1,500 pounds of frozen apples, resulting in a conversion factor of 0.75.

The apples are cored and peeled and 500 pounds goes into juice production. These percentages are constant if the apple comes via a "packer" or directly from a grower/ orchard.

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Apple Sauce

2,000 pounds of fresh fruit yield 1,800 pounds of sauce, resulting in a conversion factor of 0.9. 200 pounds of byproduct goes into juice production. These percentages are constant if the apple comes via a "packer" or directly from a grower/orchard. The byproduct includes stems, seeds, and peels.

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Apple Slices

There is a loss of 15% from the removal of the core and culling for quality.

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Fresh Apricots

Apricots are very delicate. The cull can be as high as 50%, with an average of 25%, resulting in an average conversion factor of 75%. Much of the cull goes to processors to make puree. Apricots are packed in both the field and in packing houses. They are packed in the field to minimize handling; other times they are sent to a house for packing and culling.

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Dried Apricots

100 pounds of fresh fruit yield 10 pounds of dried fruit, which is accounted for by culling, removing the pit,and water loss. The weight loss is primarily the result of the moisture loss. This results in a conversion factor of 10%.

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Fresh Avocados

Overall the loss from field to supermarket averages about 5%, resulting in a conversion factor of 95%. Loss comes in two forms: damage and respiration. Avocados lose 1% of weight due to respiration in the first 24 hours after harvest. Less than 1% are rejected at the packinghouse. 2-3% is rejected between packing and ripening. Another 1-2% is rejected at retail due to spoilage.

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Guacamole

100 pounds of fresh avacado yield an average of 55 pounds of guacamole, resulting in a conversion factor of 55%. The loss is accounted for by culling, peeling the skin, and removing the pit.

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Fresh Sweet Cherries

At the packing house, 10% are culled and go to juice, 2% are of such poor quality they go to trash, 3% are undersize and go to Maraschino Cherries. In addition, 1-2% are rejected by the retailer/wholesaler for quality. Considering all these factors, the conversion factor averages 83.5%.

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Fresh Tart Cherries

The loss averages 7% from culling and rejection because of poor quality when received at wholesale/retail, resulting in a conversion factor of 93%.

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Canned Tart Cherries

25 pounds of fruit in 30 pound plastic buckets (5 part fruit +1 part sugar) corresponded to 32.3 pounds of raw fruit, resulting in a conversion factor of 77%. The loss is largely due to the removal of the stem and pit, plus culling.

The new figure is lower than the old figure because it counts only the weight of the cherries and not of added ingredients in the can.

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Frozen Tart Cherries

Approximately 40 pounds of frozen fruit per 55 pounds of fresh fruit. Conversion factor: 40/55=0.73. The loss is largely due to the removal of the stem and pit, plus culling.

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Dried Tart Cherries

The conversion factor would vary depending on the degree of dehydration, but the general ratio between fresh and dried is 5:1 implying a conversion factor of 20%. The stem and pits are removed. The weight loss is primarily the result of the moisture loss.

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Fresh Grapes

An average loss of 8%, resulting in a conversion factor of 92%.

Grapes are packed in the field. Vineyards can be picked as many as 5 times as the grapes ripen. 70% of grapes go to the upper end of the market (high quality) with lower losses. 30 % of the grapes go to lower tier market with a higher shrink due to poor quality. "Gunny sackers" pick what is left for lowest quality market. Loss during shipping depends on whether it is packed in bags, plastic clam shells, or just in boxes (more shatter).

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Raisins

100 pounds of fresh grapes yield an average of 22 pounds of raisins, resulting in a conversion factor of 22%. The weight loss is primarily due to the moisture lost.

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Wine

2,000 pounds of grapes typically yields 55-65 (an average of 60) cases of wine. A case of wine contains 2.38 gallons, so 60 cases equals 142.8 gallons. A gallon of wine on average weighs 8.29 lbs. Therefore, a ton of grapes yields 1,183.8 pounds of wine, for a conversion factor of 0.591, rounded to 0.59. The yield can be as low as 110 gallons/ton and as high as 160 gallons, depending on the pressing practices, the grape variety, the size of the berries, and the sugar content. The waste includes stems, seeds, skin, and mashed pulp.

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100% Grape Juice

2,000 pounds of grapes yields 135 gallons, which weighs 1,242 pounds (9.20 pounds/gallon), for a conversion factor of 0.62. The conversion factor is different for grape juice than wine because the grape varieties and pressing are different. This waste includes stems, seeds, skin, and mashed pulp.

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Fresh Nectarines

The fruit is picked, then culled and shipped from a packing house. The cull rate varies greatly over the season and from year to year, but on average is 17%, a 83% conversion factor. This includes shipments rejected by wholesalers/retailers because of poor quality. Some of the culled fruit may be sent to a processor for puree, but about 60% goes to feedlots.

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Fresh Peaches

The fruit is picked, then culled and shipped from a packing house. The cull rate varies greatly over the season and from year to year, but on average is 17%, an 83% conversion factor. This includes shipments rejected by wholesalers/retailers because of poor quality. Some of the culled fruit may be sent to a processor for puree, but about 60% goes to feedlots.

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Fresh Pears

The loss from culling at the packing house and during shipment averages 8%, which produces a conversion factor of 92%.

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Fresh Persimmons

10% are culled in the packing house to meet the quality standards of the marketing order. Losses during shipment are less than 1%. The conversion factor is 90%.

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Fresh Plums

The cull averages 25%, including a small rate of rejection by wholesalers/retailers, resulting in a conversion factor of 75%.

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Plum Juice

100 pounds of plums yield 85 pounds of juice, an 85% conversion factor. The waste includes pits,skin, and mashed pulp.

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Prunes

3 pounds of fresh fruit yields 1 pound of dried plums (prunes) with pits removed. A conversions factor of 33%.

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Prune Juice

100 pounds of fresh plums yield 33 pounds of prunes and then 28 pounds of juice.

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Fresh Cut Pineapples

20 pounds of fresh pineapple yields 8-9 pounds of fresh cut up fruit, for a yield of 40-45% and an average conversion factor of 42%. The cut up pineapple uses only the core with the top and peel removed.

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Dried Pineapples

10 pounds of fresh pineapples yields 1 pound of cut up dried pineapples, resulting in a 10% conversion factor. The cut up pineapple uses only the core with the top and peel removed. The weight loss is primarily due to the moisture lost.

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Fresh Watermelon

The cull rate is 10% with less than 1% loss during shipment, resulting in a 90% conversion factor.

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Frozen Blueberries

4% cull in the processing plant and 1% loss during distribution yield a conversion factor of 95%.

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Fresh Cranberries

1,000 harvested pounds provide a yield of 85-90% of marketable berries, so the average conversion factor is 87.5%.

This includes both cranberries that are harvested from dry fields in the East, Massachusetts, and New Jersey and those from flooded fields in Wisconsin.

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Sweetened Dried Cranberries

100 pounds of cranberries yields 50 pounds of sweetened dried cranberries, so the conversion factor is 50%. This includes sweetener, but there is no separate number for just dried berries since sweetener is added when they are dried. The weight loss is primarily due to the moisture lost.

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100% Pure Cranberry Juice

100 pounds of cranberries yields 1.5 gallons of juice. A gallon weighs 8 pounds, so the conversion factor is 12%. The waste includes skins and mashed pulp.

There are many different drinks that contain varying amounts of cranberry juice, so the only possible way to derive this conversion factor is for pure juice.

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Frozen Raspberries

4% cull in processing plant and 1% loss during distribution, resulting in a conversion factor is 95%

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Fresh Strawberries

The loss between when the berries are picked and the supermarket is 10-15%, so the average conversion factor is 87.5%,rounded to 88%. The rate of loss varies based in part on how the berries are packaged.

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Frozen Strawberries

4% cull in the processing plant; 17% weight loss when the green stems and tops are removed; 1% loss in distribution; for a total loss of 22%, so the conversion factor is 78%.

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Fresh Grapefruit

The average loss on fresh grapefruit is 15%, primarily due to culls sent to a juicer. Most of the cull is due to skin blemishes, resulting in a conversion factor of 85%.

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Fresh Grapefruit Juice

A 85 pound field box yields 48.5 pounds of juice, for a conversion factor of 0.57.

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Fresh Lemons

The average loss on fresh lemons is 15%, primarily due to culls sent to a juicer. Most of the cull is due to skin blemishes, resulting in a conversion factor of 85%.

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Lemon Juice

100 pounds of fresh lemons yields an average of 55 pounds of juice, for a conversion factor of 0.55.


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Fresh Oranges

The average loss on fresh oranges is 15%, primarily due to culls sent to a juicer. Most of the cull is due to skin blemishes. Most domestic fresh oranges are produced in California. Most domestic oranges used to make fresh juice and concentrate are grown in Florida. The resultant conversion factor is 85%.



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Orange Juice

One industry source stated that a 90 pound field box yields 51.5 pounds of juice, for a conversion factor of 0.57. Another industry source stated that 100 pounds of fruit yields 48.7 pounds (5.56 gallons at 8.759 pounds/gallon) of fresh juice, for a conversion factor of 0.49. A composite conversion factor of 0.53 was used. There are only about six major fresh juice processors in the U.S. The conversion factor for fresh juice is less than for major processors that produce concentrate.

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